Patanjali yoga sutras, sutra no- 5,6,7.
वृत्तयः पञ्चतय्यः क्लिष्टा अक्लिष्टाः॥५॥
Vṛttayaḥ pañcatayyaḥ kliṣṭā akliṣṭāḥ||5||
क्लिष्टा ,kliṣṭā- Painful.
वृत्तयः, Vṛttayaḥ – Thought.
पञ्चतय्यः, pañcatayyaḥ – They are five types.
The painful and not painful modifications are five types.
प्रमाण,Pramāṇa – Right knowledge, real cognition.
विपर्यय,viparyaya- Unreal cognition, indiscrimination.
विकल्प,vikalpa- Imagination, Verbal delusion.
प्रत्यक्ष-प्रमाण ( Direct perception)- When one acquires knowledge as it’s without
obstruction that is direct perception ‘ Right knowledge’. To see things as they are.
For an instance- I am teaching or i am giving a lecture and students are acquiring
direct knowledge. It’s direct perception, they are experiencing it. It is real cognition.
The knowledge that is useful or helpful to restrain vritties of the mind, by which one reverence and enthusiasm increases in the yoga sadhana those vritties are not painful.
For an instance- Inference there is fire by seeing smoke in the mountain. it’s inference knowledge. If these inferences also increase reverence and enthusiasm in the yoga then these are not painful vritties.
If these inferences increase nescience in the yoga sadhana then these are painful
अगम-प्रमाण ‘Aaagama parmana’ – Competent evidence
The wisdom ‘Knowledge’ of vedas, scriptures, The words of the worldly minded
people and those who has achieved that state of peace where even अनुमान can’t
reach, that competent knowledge comes only from the words of the worldly minded people. If this increases reverence and enthusiasm in the yoga sadhana then these
are not painful vritties. If this knowledge increases nescience in the yoga sadhana
then these are painful vritties.
Complete description of rest of sutras will be mentioned in our next post of patanjali
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